“Nearly 46 million Americans are uninsured. More than 8 out of 10 uninsured persons are in working families that cannot afford health insurance, and many are not eligible for public programs.1 Healthcare safety-net providers are those that have a mission to offer health care to all patients, regardless of their ability to pay, and typically have a substantial number of patients who are uninsured.” – Online Library 2017

The composition of sports medicine has varied across settings, and over time. Historically, the most common practitioners have been physicians, who are the primary healthcare providers, and physiotherapists, who provide rehabilitation. In the United States and some Canadian provinces, a third profession, athletic therapy, has also been prominent, with primary responsibility for on‐site care during training and competition. (In settings where athletic therapists are not common, these services are typically provided by physiotherapists.) In recent years, sports medicine has seen the re‐composition of some professions and the addition of others. Physiotherapy has expanded its scope of practice by establishing a sports physiotherapy specialization, with advanced training in manipulation, which historically has been the domain of chiropractors.


The expansion of sport medicine has included the establishment of sport specialisations in chiropractic and massage. The addition of massage has been relatively unproblematic in that practitioners claim expertise mainly in one activity, massage, which is practised by, but is not a defining feature of, any of the other therapy professions

Athletic therapists and physiotherapists often have welcomed massage therapists on to sport medicine teams because it relieves them of the need to provide this service while not in any way jeopardizing their own claims to the scope of practice.